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Aerobik berarti “dengan oksigen”, dan merujuk kepada penggunaan oksigen di dalam tubuh atau energi metabolis-menghasilkan proses.
Banyak jenis latihan adalah aerobik, dan dengan definisi yang dilakukan di tingkat intensitas sedang untuk perpanjangan masa waktu. Untuk mendapatkan hasil terbaik, sebuah sesi latihan aerobik melibatkan masa warming up, diikuti oleh sedikitnya 20 menit latihan intensitas sedang untuk melibatkan kelompok otot besar, dan pendinginan bawah pada akhir period.
Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise
Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and weight training are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle. Initially during aerobic exercise, glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, which is then broken down using oxygen to generate energy. In the absence of these carbohydrates, fat metabolism is initiated instead. The latter is a slow process, and is accompanied by a decline in performance level. This gradual switch to fat as fuel is a major cause of what marathon runners call “hitting the wall”. Anaerobic exercise, in contrast, refers to the initial phase of exercise, or to any short burst of intense exertion, in which the glycogen or sugar is consumed without oxygen, and is a far less efficient process. Operating anaerobically, an untrained 400 meter sprinter may “hit the wall” short of the full distance.
‘Aerobic capacity’ describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the heart, lungs and blood vessels). Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise. It is a function both of cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion. The individual is typically connected to a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption, and the speed is increased incrementally over a fixed duration of time. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply stated, the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness. The Cooper and multi-stage fitness tests can also be used to assess functional aerobic capacity for particular jobs or activities.
When overall fitness is an occupational requirement, as it is for athletes, soldiers, and police and fire personnel, aerobic exercise alone may not provide a well balanced exercise program. In particular, muscular strength, especially upper-body muscular strength, may be neglected. Also, the metabolic pathways involved in anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation) that generate energy during high intensity, low duration tasks, such as sprinting, are not exercised at peak aerobic exercise levels. Aerobic exercise remains however a valuable component of a balanced exercise program and is good for cardiovascular health.
Some persons suffer repetitive stress injuries with some forms of aerobics, and then must choose less injurious, “low-impact” forms of aerobics, or lengthen the gap between bouts of exercise to allow for greater recovery.
Aerobic activity is also used by individuals with anorexia as a means of suppressing appetite, since aerobic exercise increases sugar and fatty acids in the blood by stimulating tissues to release their energy stores. While there is some support for exercising while hungry as a means of tapping into fat stores, most evidence is equivocal. In addition, performance can be impaired by lack of nutrients, which will reduce training effects.
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